In serious cases, symptoms can include: severe lung infection, sepsis and septic shock — a generalised infection and inflammatory response, all of which need specialised medical care and support. A percentage of those affected by COVID will require hospitalisation, some even requiring intensive care, sometimes for extended periods.
People developing severe respiratory symptoms may require mechanical ventilation support, which may make them more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections. In addition, COVID patients can experience complications, such as strokes or heart attacks, due to increased coagulation.
Some patients experience neurological symptoms, such as personality changes or changes in alertness. Hospitalisation rates increase rapidly with age, in particular for those aged 60 years and above, and for those with underlying health conditions.
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For COVID cases, the risk of dying increases rapidly with age, and is substantially higher than for influenza. It is increasingly evident that some patients may suffer long-term effects from COVID infection, including difficulty in breathing and an elevated heart rate.
While bats are believed to be the original host of the virus, the virus now spreads from person to person human-to-human transmission. It is currently estimated that if preventive measures are not taken, on average one infected person will infect between two and three other people.
The virus is transmitted mainly via respiratory droplets and aerosols when sneezing, coughing, or interacting with others in close proximity usually less than two metres. These droplets can be inhaled, or they can land on surfaces that other people may come into contact with, causing them to become infected when they touch their nose, mouth or eyes.
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Transmission can also occur from a person who is infected two days before they begin showing symptoms. The virus can survive on different surfaces for several hours on copper or cardboard or up to a few days on plastic or stainless steel. Everyone is at risk of getting COVID, with some population groups hpv prevention week 2021 a hpv prevention week 2021 risk of developing severe disease.
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Symptoms in children tend to be less severe than in adults. Crowded indoor environments provide opportunities for COVID outbreaks, with prisons, migrant centres and food processing plants being examples of places where outbreaks have been reported.
It is possible that cold and humid air enhances the risk of transmission. Those groups at increased risk of developing severe COVID disease are: people aged 60 years and above; people with underlying health conditions, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, or weakened immune systems.
It is recommended to keep physical distance a minimum of one or, ideally, two metres from others in public places, and to avoid gatherings of large groups of people to reduce the risk of infection through respiratory droplets.
For an overview of actions that people and communities can take to help slow down the spread of COVID see: Infographic: Non-pharmaceutical measures. The virus enters the body via the eyes, nose or mouth, so it is important to avoid touching the face with unwashed hands.
Handwashing with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, or cleaning the hands thoroughly with alcohol-based solutions, gels or tissues is recommended in all settings. How is it treated? Healthcare providers mostly treat COVID symptoms rather than targeting the virus itself by offering supportive care e. For severely and critically ill patients, a number of medicines are being tested to target the virus, but their use still needs to be assessed more thoroughly.
Several international clinical trials are ongoing to assess the effectiveness of various medicines and antibodies.